Development of the telencephalon: cerebral cortex and olfactory system

Development of the telencephalon: cerebral cortex and olfactory system







The interest of our group is focused on the study of the development of the telencephalon, taking into account the spatiotemporal origin of each population of cells that participate in the formation of the nuclei and constituent structures. These studies are performed at the anatomical, cellular, and molecular levels.

Research lines of the laboratory 
  1. Spatiotemporal origin of Subplate cells. Dynamics of cell migration and molecular mechanisms involved. Characterization of this cell typology.
  2. Study of the development of the Cerebral Cortex. Origin of its constituent cells, migratory routes and mechanisms used by different cell populations to reach their adult disposition.
  3. Sequential study of the development of the different nuclei and structures that constitute the telencephalic vesicles. Origin and migratory routes of the cell populations that form each structure.
  4. Extra-telencephalic origin of some telencephalic cell populations: the extended amygdala.
Experimental approaches 
  • Experimental embryology
  • Intracerebral injections performed in utero, guided by ultrasound echography
  • Culture of whole embryos (in toto), in roller bottles
  • Cellular transplants and implants of solid pieces of tissue
  • Organotypic cultures
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Gene probe synthesis, in situ hybridization, vector construction
  • Electroporation of intrauterine injected plasmids
  • Light, fluorescence and confocal microscopy
  • Classic histology (Golgi stain, Nissl, etc.)


Juan A. de Carlos

Principal Investigator


Recent publications

  • Figueres-Oñate, M., García-Marqués, J., Pedraza, M., De Carlos, J. A. and López-Mascaraque, L. 2015. Spatiotemporal analyses of neural lineages after embryonic and postnatal progenitor targeting combining different reporters. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 9: 87. DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2015.00087.

  • Lerma, J. and De Carlos, J. A. 2014. Epilog: Cajal´s unique and legitimated school. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 8: 58. DOI: 10.3389/fnana.2014.00058.

  • Pedraza, M., Hoerder-Suabedissen, A., Albert-Maestro, M.A., Molnar, Z. and De Carlos, J. A. 2014. Extracortical origin of some murine subplate cell populations. PNAS, 111 (23): 8607-8612. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1323816111.

  • Molnár, Z, Kaas, J.H., De Carlos, J.A., Hevner, R. F., Lein, E. and Němec, P. 2014. Evolution and development of the mammalian cerebral cortex. Brain Behaviour and Evolution, 83: 126-139.

  • De Carlos, J.A. and Pedraza, M. 2014. Santiago Ramón y Cajal: The Cajal Institute and the Spanish Histological School. Anatomical Record, 297:1785-1802.

  • Gire, D.H., Restrepo, D., Sejnowsky, T.J., Greer, C., De Carlos, J.A. and López-Mascaraque, L. 2013. Temporal processing in the olfactory system: Can we see a Smell? Neuron, 78: 416-432.

  • Ceci, M.L., Pedraza, M. and De Carlos, J.A. 2012. Embryonic septum and ventral pallium, new sources of olfactory cortex. PLoS ONE, 7 (9): e44716.

  • Pedraza, M. and De Carlos, J.A. 2012. A further analysis of olfactory cortex development. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 6. DOI: 10.3389/fnana.2012.00035.

  • Martin-López, E., Blanchart, A., De Carlos, J. A. and Laura López-Mascaraque, L. 2011. DAB1 (Disable homolog-1) reelin adaptor protein is overexpressed in the olfactory bulb at early postnatal stages. PLoS ONE, 6 (10): e26673.

  • Blanchart, A., Martín-López, E., De Carlos, J.A. and López-Mascaraque, L. 2011. Peripheral contributions to Olfactory Bulb cell populations (Migrations towards the Olfactory Bulb). Glia, 59: 278-292.

  • Miquelajáuregui, A., Valera-Echavarría, A., Ceci, M.L., García-Moreno, F., Hoang, K., Ricaño, I., Chowdhury, T.G., Portera-Cailliau, C., Tamariz, E., De Carlos, J.A., Westphal, H. and Zhao, Y. 2010. LIM-homeobox gene Lhx5 is required for normal development of Cajal-Retzius cells. J. Neurosci., 30 (31): 10551-10562.

  • García-Moreno, F., Pedraza, M., Di Giovannantonio, L.G., Di Salvio, M., López-Mascaraque, L., Simeone, A. and De Carlos, J.A. 2010 A neuronal migratory pathway crossing brain boundaries populates amygdala nuclei. Nature Neurosci., 13: 680-189.

  • Ceci, M.L., López-Mascaraque, L. and De Carlos, J. A. 2010. The influence of the environment on Cajal-Retzius cell migration. Cereb. Cortex, 20: 2348-2360.

  • García-Marqués, J., De Carlos, J.A., Greer, C.A. and López-Mascaraque, L. 2010. Different astroglia permissivity controls the migration of olfactory bulb interneuron precursors. Glia. 58: 218-230.

  • Blanchart, A., Romaguera, M., García-Verdugo, J.M., De Carlos, J.A. and López-Mascaraque, L. 2008. Synaptogenesis in the mouse olfactory bulb during glomerulus development. Europ. J. Neurosci., 27: 2838–2846.

  • García-Moreno, F., López-Mascaraque, L. and De Carlos, J.A. 2008. Early Telencephalic Migration Topographically Converging in the Olfactory Cortex. Cereb. Cortex., 18, 1239–1252.

  • De Carlos, J.A. and Borrell, J. 2007. A historical reflection of the contributions of Cajal and Golgi to the foundations of neuroscience. Brain Res. Rev., 55: 8-16.

  • De Castro, F., López-Mascaraque, L. and De Carlos, J.A. 2007. Cajal: Lessons on brain development. Brain Research Reviews, 55: 481-489.

  • García-Moreno, F., López-Mascaraque, L. and De Carlos, J.A. 2007. Origins and migratory routes of murine Cajal-retzius cells. J. Comp. Neurol., 500: 419-432.

  • Blanchart, A., De Carlos, J.A and López-Mascaraque, L. 2006. Time frame of mitral cell development in mice olfactory bulb. J. Comp. Neurol., 496:529–543.

  • López-Mascaraque, L., García, C., Blanchart, A. and De Carlos, J.A. 2005. The olfactory epithelium influences the orientation of mitral cell dendrites during development. Developmental Dynamics 232:325–335.

  • Jiménez, D, Rivera, R., López-Mascaraque, L. and De Carlos, J.A. 2003. Origin of the cortical layer in rodents. Developmental Neuroscience, 25: 105-115.

  • Jiménez, D., López-Mascaraque, L., De Carlos J.A. and Valverde F. 2002. Further studies on cortical tangential migration in wild type and Pax-6 mice J. Neurocytology , 31: 719-728.

  • Jiménez, D, López-Mascaraque, L., Valverde, F. and De Carlos, J.A. 2002. Tangential migration in neocortical development. Developmental Biology, 244: 155-169.

  • Jiménez, D, García, C., De Castro, F., Chédotal, A., Sotelo, C., De Carlos, J.A., Valverde, F. and López-Mascaraque, L. 2001. Evidence for intrinsic development of olfactory structures in Pax-6 mutant mice. J. Comp. Neurol, 428: 511-526.

  • Valverde, F., García, M.C., López-Mascaraque, L. and De Carlos, J.A. 2000. Development of the mammillothalamic tract in the normal and Pax-6 mutant mice. J. Comp. Neurol., 419: 485-504.

Books, monographs and collective volumes

  • De Carlos, J.A. and García-Moreno, F. 2009. Tangential cell movements during early telencephalic development. In: “From development to degeneration and regeneration of the nervous system”. Charles E. Ribak, Carlos Aramburo de la Hoz, Edward G. Jones, Jorge A. Larriva-Sahd and Larry W. Swanson (Eds.). Oxford University Press.
  • Alonso J.R. and De Carlos, J.A. 2018. Cajal, un grito por la Ciencia. Editado por Next Door Publishers. Pamplona, España (250 pp).
  • De Carlos, J.A. 2007. Ciencia y arte en los dibujos histológicos de Santiago Ramón y Cajal. En: “Actas Congreso Cajal”. Editado por el Gobierno de Aragón, Departamento de Educación, Cultura y Deporte. Zaragoza, España (ISBN: 84-7753-698-8) pp 53-72.
  • García-Moreno, F., Benito, A., Ceci, M.L. y De Carlos, J.A. 2006. Migraciones neuronales tempranas en el desarrollo del sistema olfativo. En: La Olfacción en España (J.R. Alonso, F. de Castro, L. López-Mascaraque, eds.) pp 137-153.
  • De Carlos, J.A. 2006. Los dibujos histológicos de Santiago Ramón y Cajal. En: “Santiago Ramón y Cajal. Cien años después” (Antoni Gamundí y Alberto Ferrús, Eds.) Editorial Pirámide – Universitat de les Illes Balears, 339 pp. + CD (ISBN-10: 84-7632-952-0)

  • Valverde, F., De Carlos, J.A. and López-Mascaraque, L. 2002. The Cerebral Cortex of Mammals: Diversity within unity. In: Cortical Areas. Unity and Diversity. Published by: Taylor & Francis, London, New Cork (A. Schüz and R. Miller, eds.) pp 195-217.

  • De Carlos, J.A. 2001. Los Ramón y Cajal: Una familia aragonesa. Editado por la Diputación General de Aragón, Departamento de Cultura. Zaragoza, España (190 pp).

  • De Carlos, J.A., Rodríguez-Quiroga, A. y Pérez de Tudela. M.A. 1997. Cajal y su Legado. Informe editado por el Convenio firmado entre el CSIC, Glaxo-Wellcome, Fundación de Ciencias de la Salud y Fundación Residencia de Estudiantes, para la catalogación, preservación y exposición del Legado Cajal.

  • De Carlos, J.A., López-Mascaraque, L. & Valverde, F. 1990. Morphological characterization of Alz-50 immunoreactive cells in the developing neocortex in kittens. In: The Cerebral Cortex: Ontogeny and Phylogeny. Finley, B. Innocenti, G. & Scheich, H. (Eds.). New York: Plenum Press. NATO ASI Series. Series A: Life Sciences, vol. 200, pp. 193-197.

  • O’Leary, D.D.M., Bicknese, A.R., De Carlos, J.A., Heffner, C.D., Koester, S.E., Kutka, L.J. and Terashima, T. 1990. Target selection by cortical axons: Alternative mechanisms to establish axonal connections in the developing brain. In: Fifty-fifth Simposium on Quantitative Biology: The Brain, E.R. Kandel, T.J. Sejnowski, C.F. Stevens, and J.D. Watson (Eds.), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press: Cold Spring Harbor, NY, vol. 55, pp 453-468.


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Lab A22

Instituto Cajal CSIC. Avda. Doctor Arce, 37. 28002. Madrid

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